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Ayurveda  is the basic method of therapeutics  to retain health and heal diseases. The techniques of biocleancing are called Panchakarma that consists of five procedures:emesis(vamana),purgation(virechana),oilenema(anuvasana), decoction enema (asthapana) and nasal application of medicine (nasya). 

The definition Nasayam Bhavet nasyam: ‘Administration of medicaments through nasal route is called nasya’.

Nasa hi siraso dwaram tat vyapya thena hanthi tan: ‘Nose is the entrance to the organs of the head and the impact of the medicine will spread to the vital organs and cure the diseases’.

Ayurveda implies that the medications administered via the nose reach the Sringataka marma. It is a marma in the head made by the union of blood vessels supplying blood to the nose, ear, eye and the tongue. Thus, the drug administered through nasya may enter the above

blood vessels and purifies them.

Nasya can be performed with meat, milk, decoction, oils and ghee, after they are medicated with components of medicinal herbs. Vitex, myrobalan, sida, nut grass tuber, guggul, cardamom, roots of bael, cinnamon, sarasaparilla, sesame oil, goat’s milk and rainwater are also used for performing Nasya

Nasya classification

Nasya is classified differently by various Acharyas. Charaka mentions about Navana, Avapidana, Dhoomapana, and Pratimarsa while Vagbhata classified it into Samana, Brumhana and Virechana.

Samana Nasya: It is a palliative nasya that cures the disease without removing the vitiated doshas. This is good mainly in conditions such as skin discoloration, hair loss and eye diseases.

Virechana Nasya: It is eliminative type of nasya that kicks out the doshas from the head. Majority of Teekshana Nasya comes under this category.

Another classification of snehana nasya is marsa and prathimarsa based on the dose and strength of administration.

Marsa nasya is the method of application of sneha (medicated ghee/oil) in its full dose of six to ten drops. Its clinical implication is also very high.

Pratimarsa nasya can be performed on any person and is aimed at rejuvenating the sensory organs .

Nasya is also classified based on the parts of the medicinal herb used in the form of extract/churna for nasya. They are the ones using phala (fruits), pushpa (flowers), kanda, niryasa, patra (leaf), moola (root) and twak (bark).

Another classification is based on the pharmaceutical preparation. They are churna (powder), kshra (ash), madya (essence), sneha (oil), kalka, kwatha, mamsa (meat) and dhuma (fomentation).

Tailamevacha nasyardhe nityabhyasena shasyate sirasa; sleshmadhamatvat sneha: swasthasya netare ‘Taila (medicated oil) is the best option for regular nasya practice in healthy individual, as head is the seat of Kapha’.

Restrictions

Nasya is not perfomed on people suffering from diseases such as chronic sinusitis, respiratory disorders, infective condition of the head, indigestion, coughs and acute fever.

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